In most places where sources of industrial and domestic pollutants affect air quality, the effects tend to be stable or improve over time. The problems associated with traffic pollution are about to reverse this trend and generally worsen worldwide. [Note 127] Air pollution from transport has increased in the UK, but at a slower rate than air pollution from other sources. [Note 128] Air pollution is not covered by CO2 emissions modelling, but more intensive trade could increase pollution from trade-related production and transport. As explained above for CO2 emissions, the impact will depend on the volume of goods and modes of transport used. Four NGOs have made customs procedures a priority, with a focus on reducing administrative burdens on British businesses trading with Australia. One respondent pointed out the benefits that trade facilitation could bring to businesses, which could lead to increased economic activity. One NGO called for the maintenance of robust customs procedures for agricultural products entering the UK from Australia. Five NGOs have raised concerns, including anti-business customs practices, which could lead to costly tariff delays.
In addition, issues relating to import duties and marginal turnover tax (VAT), VAT payment systems, commercial financing (including letters of credit) as well as maritime, aeronautical and transport insurance and reinsurance and reinsurance were discussed. Australia is also a leading member of CPTPP. The UK government sees membership of CPTPP (one of the world`s largest free trade zones, which together accounts for 13% of the world`s gross domestic product (GDP) in 2018) as a central part of its economic strategy and towards the Asia-Pacific. We have made more than $112 billion in trade with countries in this expansionary free trade area in 2019 and we are committed to boosting our trade with those economies. [Note 9] As an agreement that crosses the dynamic Asia-Pacific region, the CPTPP offers an essential means of enhancing the diversity of the UK`s trade agreements. Charts 11 to 13 describe scenarios for the supposed magnitude of trade cost reductions resulting from the trade agreement.